Grading Policies for Introduction to Literature
90-100, A; 80-89, B; 70-79, C; 60-69, D; Below 60, E.
Your four major essays will combine to form the main part of the grade for this course: Essay 1 =10%; Essay 2=15%; Essay 3=15%; Essay 4=20%
Students will work in groups to complete four assignments（作业）during the course. All the assignments will be submitted by the assigned date through Blackboard, our online learning and course management system.
Daily Work/In-Class Writings and Tests/Group Work/Homework（10%）
Class activities will vary from day to day, but students must be ready to complete shortin-class writings or tests drawn directly from assigned readings or notes from the previousclass' lecture/discussion, so it is important to take careful notes during class. Additionally,from time to time I will assign group work to be completed in class or short assignments to becompleted at home, both of which will be graded.
An essay not submitted in class on the due date will lose a letter grade for each classperiod it is late. If it is not turned in by the 4th day after the due date, it will earn a zero. Dailyassignments not completed during class will get a zero. Short writings missed as a result of anexcused absence will be accepted.
21. Where is this text probably taken from?
A. A textbook. B. An exam paper. C. A course plan. D. An academic article.
22. How many parts is a student's final grade made up of?
A. Two. B. Three. C. Four. D. Five.
23. What will happen if you submit an essay one week after the due date?
A. You will receive a zero. B. You will lose a letter grade.
C. You will be given a test. D. You will have to rewrite it.
Like most of us, I try to be mindful of food that goes to waste. The arugula（芝麻菜）was to make a nice green salad, rounding out a roast chicken dinner. But I ended up working late. Then friends called with a dinner invitation. I stuck the chicken in the freezer. But as days passed, the arugula went bad. Even worse, I had unthinkingly bought way too much; I could have made six salads with what I threw out.
In a world where nearly 800 million people a year go hungry, "food waste goes against the moral grain," as Elizabeth Royte writes in this month's cover story. It's jaw-dropping how much perfectly good food is thrown away—from “ugly"（but quite eatable）vegetables rejected by grocers to large amounts of uneaten dishes thrown into restaurant garbage cans.
Producing food that no one eats wastes the water, fuel, and other resources used to grow it. That makes food waste an environmental problem. In fact, Royte writes, "if food waste were a country, it would be the third largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world."
If that's hard to understand, let's keep it as simple as the arugula at the back of my refrigerator. Mike Curtin sees my arugula story all the time — but for him, it's more like 12 bones of donated strawberries nearing their last days. Curtin is CEO of DC Central Kitchen in Washington, D.C., which recovers food and turns it into healthy meals. Last year it recovered more than 807,500 pounds of food by taking donations and collecting blemished（有瑕疵的）produce that otherwise would have rotted in fields. And the strawberries? Volunteers will wash, cut, and freeze or dry them for use in meals down the road.
Such methods seem obvious, yet so often we just don't think. "Everyone can play a part in reducing waste, whether by not purchasing more food than necessary in your weekly shopping or by asking restaurants to not include the side dish you won't eat," Curtin says.
24. What does the author want to show by telling the arugula story?
A. We pay little attention to food waste. B. We waste food unintentionally at times.
C. We waste more vegetables than meat. D. We have good reasons for wasting food.
25. What is a consequence of food waste according to the test?
A. Moral decline. B. Environmental harm.
C. Energy shortage. D. Worldwide starvation.
26. What does Curtin's company do?
A. It produces kitchen equipment. B. It turns rotten arugula into clean fuel.
C. It helps local farmers grow fruits D. It makes meals out of unwanted food.
27. What does Curtin suggest people do?
A. Buy only what is needed. B. Reduce food consumption.
C. Go shopping once a week. D. Eat in restaurants less often.
The elderly residents（居民）in care homes in London are being given hens to look afterto stop them feeling lonely.
The project was dreamed up by a local charity（慈善组织）to reduce loneliness andimprove elderly people's wellbeing, It is also being used to help patients suffering dementia, a serious illness of the mind. Staff in care homes have reported a reduction in the use ofmedicine where hens are in use.
Among those taking part in the project is 80-year-old Ruth Xavier. She said: “I used to keep hens when I was younger and had to prepare their breakfast each morning before I wentto school.
"I like the project a lot. I am down there in my wheelchair in the morning letting the hensout and down there again at night to see they've gone to bed.
"It's good to have a different focus. People have been bringing their children in to see thehens and residents come and sit outside to watch them. I'm enjoying the creative activities,and it feels great to have done something useful."
There are now 700 elderly people looking after hens in 20 care homes in the North East,and the charity has been given financial support to roll it out countrywide.
Wendy Wilson, extra care manager at 60 Penfold Street, one of the first to embark on theproject, said: "Residents really welcome the idea of the project and the creative sessions. Weare looking forward to the benefits and fun the project can bring to people here."
Lynn Lewis, director of Notting Hill Pathways, said: "We are happy to be taking part inthe project. It will really help connect our residents through a shared interest and creativeactivities."
28. What is the purpose of the project?
A. To ensure harmony in care homes. B. To provide part-time jobs for the aged.
C. To raise money for medical research. D. To promote the elderly people's welfare.
29. How has the project affected Ruth Xavier?
A. She has learned new life skills. B. She has gained a sense of achievement.
C. She has recovered her memory. D. She has developed a strong personality.
30. What do the underlined words "embark on" mean in paragraph 7?
A. Improve. B. Oppose. C. Begin. D. Evaluate.
31. What can we learn about the project from the last two paragraphs?
A. It is well received. B. It needs to be more creative.
C. It is highly profitable. D. It takes ages to see the results.
Human speech contains more than 2,000 different sounds, from the common "m" and"a" to the rare clicks of some southern African languages. But why are certain sounds morecommon than others? A ground-breaking, five-year study shows that diet-related changes inhuman bite led to new speech sounds that are now found in half the world's languages.
More than 30 years ago, the scholar Charles Hockett noted that speech sounds called labiodentals, such as "f" and "v", were more common in the languages of societies that atesofter foods. Now a team of researchers led by Damián Blasi at the University of Zurich,Switzerland, has found how and why this trend arose.
They discovered that the upper and lower front teeth of ancient human adults werealigned（对齐）, making it hard to produce labiodentals, which are formed by touching thelower lip to the upper teeth. Later, our jaws changed to an overbite structure（结构）, making it easier to produce such sounds.
The team showed that this change in bite was connected with the development ofagriculture in the Neolithic period. Food became easier to chew at this point. The jawbonedidn't have to do as much work and so didn't grow to be so large.
Analyses of a language database also confirmed that there was a global change in thesound of world languages after the Neolithic age, with the use of "f" and "v" increasingremarkably during the last few thousand years. These sounds are still not found in thelanguages of many hunter-gatherer people today.
This research overturns the popular view that all human speech sounds were presentwhen human beings evolved around 300,000 years ago. "The set of speech sounds we use hasnot necessarily remained stable since the appearance of human beings, but rather the hugevariety of speech sounds that we find today is the product of a complex interplay of thingslike biological change and cultural evolution," said Steven Moran, a member of the researchteam.
32. Which aspect of the human speech sound does Damián Blasi's research focus on?
A. Its variety. B. Its distribution. C. Its quantity. D. Its development.
33. Why was it difficult for ancient human adults to produce labiodentals?
A. They had fewer upper teeth than lower teeth.
B. They could not open and close their lips easily.
C. Their jaws were not conveniently structured.
D. Their lower front teeth were not large enough.
34. What is paragraph 5 mainly about?
A. Supporting evidence for the research results.
B. Potential application of the research findings.
C. A further explanation of the research methods.
D. A reasonable doubt about the research process.
35. What does Steven Moran say about the set of human speech sounds?
A. It is key to effective communication. B. It contributes much to cultural diversity.
C. It is a complex and dynamic system. D. It drives the evolution of human beings.
Fitness Magazine recently ran an article titled "Five Reasons to Thank Your Workout Partner." One reason was: "You'll actually show up if you know someone is waiting for you at the gym," while another read: " 36 " With a workout partner, you will increase your training effort as there is a subtle（微妙）competition.
So, how do you find a workout partner?
First of all, decide what you want from that person. 37 Or do you just want to be physically fit, able to move with strength and flexibility? Think about the exercises you would like to do with your workout partner.
You might think about posting what you are looking for on social media, but it probably won't result in a useful response. 38 If you plan on working out in a gym, that person must belong to the same gym.
My partner posted her request on the notice board of a local park. Her notice included what kind of training she wanted to do, how many days a week and how many hours she wanted to spend on each session, and her age. It also listed her favorite sports and activities, and provided her phone number. 39
You and your partner will probably have different skills. 40 Over time, both of you will benefit — your partner will be able to lift more weights and you will become more physically fit. The core（核心）of your relationship is that you will always be there to help each other.
A. Your first meeting may be a little awkward.
B. A workout partner usually needs to live close by.
C. You'll work harder if you train with someone else.
D. Do you want to be a better athlete in your favorite sport?
E. How can you write a good "seeking training partner" notice?
F. Just accept your differences and learn to work with each other.
G. Any notice for a training partner should include such information.
My husband, our children and I have had wonderful camping experiences over the past ten years.
Some of our 41 are funny, especially from the early years when our children were little. Once, we 42 along Chalk Creek. I was 43 that our 15-month-old boy would fall into the creek（小溪）. I tied a rope around his waist to keep him near to our spot. That lasted about ten minutes. He was 44 , and his crying let the whole campground know it. So 45 tying him up, I just kept a close eye on him. It 46 — he didn't end up in the creek. My three-year-old, however, did.
Another time, we rented a boat in Vallecito Lake. The sky was clear when we 47 , but storms move in fast in the mountains, and this one quickly 48 our peaceful morning trip. The 49 picked up and thunder rolled. My husband stopped fishing to 50 themotor. Nothing. He tried again. No 51 . We were stuck in the middle of the lake with a dead motor. As we all sat there 52 , a fisherman pulled up, threw us a rope and towed（拖）us back. We were 53 .
Now, every year when my husband pulls our camper out of the garage, we are filled with a sense of 54 , wondering what camping fun and 55 we will experience next.
41. A. ideas B. jokes C. memories D. discoveries
42. A. camped B. drove C. walked D. cycled
43. A. annoyed B. surprised C. disappointed D. worried
44. A. unhurt B. unfortunate C. uncomfortable D. unafraid
45. A. due to B. instead of C. apart from D. as for
46. A. worked B. happened C. mattered D. changed
47. A. signed up B. calmed down C. checked out D. headed off
48. A. arranged B. interrupted C. completed D. recorded
49. A. wind B. noise C. temperature D. speed
50. A. find B. hide C. start D. fix
51. A. luck B. answer C. wonder D. signal
52. A. patiently B. tirelessly C. doubtfully D. helplessly
53. A. sorry B. brave C. safe D. right
54. A. relief B. duty C. pride D. excitement
55. A. failure B. adventure C. performance D. conflict
The Chinese government recently finalized a plan to set up a Giant Panda National Park（GPNP）.56（cover）an area about three times57 size of Yellowstone National Park, the GPNP will be one of the first national parks in the country. The plan will extend protection to a significant number of areas that58 （be）previously unprotected, bringing many of the existing protected areas for giant pandas under one authority59 （increase）effectiveness and reduce inconsistencies in management.
After a three-year pilot period, the GPNP will be officially set up next year. The GPNP 60 （design）to reflect the guiding principle of "protecting the authenticity and integrity（完整性）of natural ecosystems, preserving biological diversity, protecting ecological buffer zones, 61 leaving behind precious natural assets（资产）for future generations". The GPNP's main goal is to improve connectivity between separate 62 （population）and homes of giant pandas, and 63 （eventual）achieve a desired level of population in the wild.
Giant pandas also serve 64 an umbrella species（物种）, bringing protection to a host of plants and animals in the southwestern and northwestern parts of China. The GPNP isintended to provide stronger protection for all the species 65 live within the GiantPanda Range and significantly improve the health of the ecosystem in the area.
假定你是校广播站英语节目“Talk and Talk”的负责人李华，请给外教Caroline写邮件邀请她做一次访谈。内容包括：
It was the day of the big cross-country run. Students from seven different primaryschools in and around the small town were warming up and walking the route（路线）throughthick evergreen forest.
I looked around and finally spotted David, who was standing by himself off to the sideby a fence. He was small for ten years old. His usual big toothy smile was absent today. I walked over and asked him why he wasn't with the other children. He hesitated and then saidhe had decided not to run.
What was wrong? He had worked so hard for this event!
I quickly searched the crowd for the school's coach and asked him what had happened. "I was afraid that kids from other schools would laugh at him,"he explained uncomfortably. "I gave him the choice to run or not, and let him decide."
I bit back my frustration（懊恼）. I knew the coach meant well—he thought he was doingthe right thing. After making sure that David could run if he wanted, I turned to find him coming towards me, his small body rocking from side to side as he swung his feet forward.
David had a brain disease which prevented him from walking or running like other children, but at school his classmates thought of him as a regular kid. He always participatedto the best of his ability in whatever they weredoing. That was why none of the childrenthought it unusual that David had decided to join the cross-country team. It just took himlonger—that’s all. David had not missed a single practice, and although he always finished his run long after the other children, he did always finish. As a special education teacher at the school, I was familiar with the challenges David faced and wasproud of his strongdetermination.
We sat down next to each other, but David wouldn't look at me.
I watched as David moved up to the starting line with the other runners.